What is ‘English for Tourism’?: An Updated ‘Grounded Review’ of the Literature

Michael Joseph Ennis

Abstract


This paper reports the results of a replication of an exploratory study conducted five years earlier that sought to answer the deceptively simple question: ‘What is English for Tourism?’. The original study created a corpus of 348 texts that served as a representative sample of all EfT literature available on Google Books and Google Scholar at the time, including both teaching material and academic literature. A qualitative analysis, which categorized and coded the corpus in accordance with grounded theory, revealed two categories of teaching material—those written for local markets and those written for international markets—as well as two parallel research traditions within this niche of applied linguistics: studies that aim to understand and inform the teaching and learning of English for tourism (EfT) and studies that seek to understand and explain the English of tourism (EoT). A quantitative analysis using Microsoft Excel and the free concordancer LancsBox confirmed and qualified these thematic categories via a comparative analysis of the EfT and EoT sub-corpora. The present study employed the same sampling frame to update the existing corpus with 543 texts published or made accessible online over the last five years. The same mixed-methods data analyses were performed on the expanded corpus. The results of the replication reconfirm the semantic, conceptual, theoretical, and methodological differences and interdependencies between EfT and EoT found during the first study. The results also reveal recent shifts in international and national discourses and expose further gaps in the existing body of literature.


Keywords


English for tourism; English of tourism; English for specific purposes; grounded theory; corpus-based research; literature review

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aleson-Carbonell, Marian. “Advertising as the Base of the Construction of the Language for Tourism: Caveats and Implications.” Applied Linguistics and Knowledge Transfer: Employment, Internationalization and Social Challenges, 19-21 April 2018, University of Cádiz, Cádiz, Spain.

---. “Tourism: The Problems of the Definition of a New ESP: A Study of the Didactic Implications of this Characterisation.” Proceedings from III Congrés Internacional sobre Llengües per a Finalitats Específiques: Ease Seminar. Edited by Frances Luttikhuizen. Barcelona: University of Barcelona, 2000. 11-15.

Arlt, Wolfgang. China’s Outbound Tourism. Oxon: Routledge, 2006.

Álvarez, Mª Ángeles Escobar. “Developing CLIL in Tertiary Education: Working with Tourism Texts.” English for Specific Purposes Instruction and Research. Edited by Nalan Kenny, Elvan Eda Işık-Taş and Huang Jian. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2020. 269-288.

Belcher, Diane. “What ESP Is and Can Be: An Introduction.” English for Specific Purposes in Theory and Practice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2009. 1-20.

Bielenia-Grajewska, Magdalena and Enriqueta Cortes de los Rios. Innovative Perspectives on Tourism Discourse. Hershey: IGI Global, 2018.

Bosch, Gloria and Torsten Schlak. Teaching Foreign Languages for Tourism: Research and Practice. Bern: Peter Lang, 2013.

Brezina, Vaclav, Tony McEnery and Stephen Wattam. “Collocations in Context: A New Perspective on Collocation Networks.” International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 20.2 (2015): 139-173.

Cappelli, Gloria. “English for Tourism: Using Translated Texts in the Classroom to Improve Writing Skills.” Lingue e linguaggi 17 (2016): 21-38.

Charmaz, Kathy. Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide through Qualitative Analysis. London: Sage, 2006.

Chien, Chi-ying. “English for Ecotourism and Its Sustainability with Augmented Reality Technology.” International Education Studies 12.6 (2019): 134-147.

Crystal, David. English as a Global Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

---. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Dann, Graham. The Language of Tourism: A Sociolinguistic Perspective. Oxon: CAB International, 1996.

Denti, Olga. “Authenticity and the Construction and Perception of Identity in Tourism Apps.” Strategies of Adaptation in Tourist Communication. Edited by Gudrun Held. Leiden: Brill, 2018. 241-269.

Dudley-Evans, Tony and Maggie Jo St. John. Developments in English for Specific Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Ennis, Michael Joseph. “Teaching and Assessing Academic Writing for Tourism Studies: An Example of Reflective Practice from the Field.” Approaches to English for Specific and Academic Purposes. Edited by Michael Joseph Ennis and Jemma Prior. Bozen-Bolzano: Bozen-Bolzano University Press, 2020. 85-118.

---. “What is ‘English for Tourism’? A ‘Grounded Review’ of Textbooks and Secondary Literature.” Teaching English for Tourism: Bridging Research and Praxis. Edited by Michael Joseph Ennis and Gina Mikel Petrie. London: Routledge, 2019. 9-40.

Ennis, Michael Joseph and Gina Mikel Petrie. “Introduction: A Response to Disparate/Desperate Circumstances.” Teaching English for Tourism: Bridging Research and Praxis. Edited by Michael Joseph Ennis and Gina Mikel Petrie. London: Routledge, 2019. 1-6.

Estival, Dominique, Candace Farris and Brett Molesworth. Aviation English: A Lingua Franca for Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers. Oxon: Routledge, 2016.

Fox, Renata. “English in Tourism: A Sociolinguistic Perspective.” Tourism and Hospitality Management 14.1 (2008): 13-22.

Francesconi, Sabrina. Reading Tourism Texts. Bristol: Channel View Publications, 2014.

Garcia Laborda, Jesús. “Revisiting Materials for Teaching Languages for Specific Purposes.” Language, Linguistics and Literature: The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies 17.1 (2011): 102-112.

Gotti, Maurizio. “The Language of Tourism as Specialized Discourse.” Translating Tourism: Linguistic/Cultural Representations. Edited by Oriana Palusci and Sabrina Francesconi. Trento: Editrice Università degli Studi di Trento, 2006. 15-34.

Hallett, Richard W. “Teaching the Sociolinguistics of Tourism." Innovative Perspectives on Tourism Discourse. Edited by Magdalena Bielenia-Grajewska and Enriqueta Cortes de los Rios. Hershey: IGI Global, 2018. 214-228.

Held, Gudrun. Strategies of Adaptation in Tourist Communication: Linguistic Insights. Leiden: Brill, 2018.

Huntley, Susan and Pilar de Juan González. “English for Tourism: Its Position within ESP.” Proceedings from III Congrés Internacional sobre Llengües per a Finalitats Específiques: Ease Seminar. Edited by Frances Luttikhuizen. Barcelona: University of Barcelona, 2000. 187-190.

Hutchinson, Tom and Alan Waters. English for Specific Purposes: A Learning Centered Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Jaworski, Adam and Annette Pritchard. Discourse, Communication and Tourism. Clevedon: Channel View Publications, 2005.

Jenkins, Jennifer. “English as a Lingua Franca from the Classroom to the Classroom.” ELT Journal 66.4 (2012): 486-494.

Jenkins, Jennifer, Will Baker and Martin Dewey. The Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca. London: Routledge, 2017.

Korstanje, Maximiliano E. “Unspeakable Discrimination: Underlying Concerns in Instrumentalizing English as Lingua Franca in Tourism Research.” Academic Journal of Studies in Society, Sciences and Technologies: Geplat Papers 1.2 (2020): 1-22.

Li, Shaofeng and Hong Wang. “Traditional Literature Review and Research Synthesis.” The Palgrave Handbook of Applied Linguistics Research Methodology. Edited by Aek Phakiti, et al. London: Palgrave-Macmillan, 2018. 123-144.

Maci, Stefania. Tourism Discourse: Professional, Promotional and Digital Voices. Bergamo: CELSB, 2010.

---. Tourism Discourse: Professional, Promotional and Digital Voices. Genova: Edizioni Culturali Internazionali, 2013.

Maci, Stefania, Michele Sala and Šarolta Godnič Vičič. “The Language of Tourism: An Introduction to the Topical Issue.” Scripta Manent 12 (2018): 1-5.

MacKenzie, Ian. English, as a Lingua Franca: Theorizing and Teaching English. London: Routledge, 2014.

McEnery, Tony and Andrew Hardie. Corpus Linguistics: Method, Theory and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011.

McHenry, Tracey. “The Politics of Englishes for Tourism: A World Englishes Perspective.” Teaching English for Tourism: Bridging Research and Praxis. Edited by Michael Joseph Ennis and Gina Mikel Petrie. London: Routledge, 2019. 68-90.

Otilia, Simion Minodora. “English: The Language of Communication in Tourism.” Annals of “Constantin Brâncuşi” of Târgu-Jiu, Economy Series 1 (2013): 306-309.

Petrie, Gina Mikel. “Exploring Stakeholders’ Language Desires in English for Tourism: An Argument for Uniqueness.” Teaching English for Tourism: Bridging Research and Praxis. Edited by Michael Joseph Ennis and Gina Mikel Petrie. London: Routledge, 2019. 41-67.

Raţă, Georgeta, Ioan Petroman and Cornelia Petroman. The English of Tourism. Newcastle Upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars, 2012.

Redondo-Carretero, María, et al. “Language Tourism Destinations: A Case Study of Motivations, Perceived Value and Tourists’ Expenditure.” Journal of Cultural Economics 41.2 (2017): 155-172.

Ruiz Garrido, Miguel and Ana Saorín-Iborra. “Why Call it Business English If We Mean English for Tourism? Some Reflections.” ESP SIG Newsletter 29 (2006): 9-12.

Salim, Muhammad Arfin Bin, Noor Aireen Binti Ibrahim and Hanita Hassan. “Language for Tourism: A Review of Literature.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 66 (2012): 136-143.

Shambaugh, David. China Goes Global: The Partial Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Stainton, Hayley. “The Commodification of English Language Teaching in Tourism: A Sustainable Solution?” Tourism Management Perspectives 25 (2018): 123-130.

Stewart, Dominic. “English for Tourism in the Non-Native English Classroom: Machine Translation and Corpora.” Teaching English for Tourism: Bridging Research and Praxis. Edited by Michael Joseph Ennis and Gina Mikel Petrie. London: Routledge, 2019. 114-130.

Strevens, Peter. “Special Purpose Language Learning: A Perspective.” Language Teaching and Linguistics: Abstracts 10.3 (1977): 145-163.

Swales, John M. “ESP Comes of Age? 21 Years After ‘Some Measurable Characteristics of Scientific Prose.’” UNESCO-ALSED LSP Newsletter 7.2 (1984): 9-20.

Thurlow, Crispin and Adam Jaworski. Tourism Discourse: Language and Global Mobility. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

Timmis, Ivor. Corpus Linguistics for ELT: Research and Practice. New York: Routledge, 2015.

Wade, Phil. “English for tourism.” Modern English Teacher 84 (2013): 52-53.

Walker, Robin. “Teaching the English of Tourism.” IATEFL ESP SIG Newsletter 4 (1995): 8-13.

Wilson, Adam. “The Local Language of Tourism in International Tourist Information Encounters: Adapting the What and the How.” Strategies of Adaptation in Tourist Communication. Edited by Gudrun Held. Leiden: Brill, 2019. 121-144.

World Tourism Organization. International Tourism Highlights, 2020 Edition. Madrid: UNWTO, 2021.

---. UNWTO Tourism Highlights: 2018 Edition. Madrid: UNWTO, 2018.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.13136/2281-4582/2021.i18.1046

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.