Black Power Is Black Language. Le lingue del ghetto come pratiche di ®esistenza
Keywords:Black English, African diaspora
AbstractDrawing on the debate on African American English, this paper will explore two pivotal aspects of the issue: the necessary tracing back of the origins and the context that gave birth to Black language as a fundamental issue for a specific social reality, and the identification of those peculiarities (phonetic, morpho-syntactic and lexical) not only proving the complexity of its linguistic status and its diversity from standard English, but also representing all its strength. In particular, by connecting African American Diaspora to more recent trans-Mediterranean routes, the theoretical framework will focus on the creation of new geo-localities and linguistic identities emerged from the multilayered contaminations brought about by global cultural flows. From a linguistic point of view a meaningful example of this process of contact and contamination is the form of Black English used in Italy by some second-generation immigrants as a pidgin adapted to specific communicative purposes that exceed linguistic, national and geographical borders. More specifically, the research will analyze Karima 2G’s aesthetics that might help re-construct the linguistic and cultural history of the color line in Italy through her history of second-generation Liberian-Italian using rap and Black English to open a transatlantic vision of the traces left by the African Diaspora.
Bailey, Beryl. “Toward a New Perspective in Negro English Dialectology.” American Speech 40.3 (1965):
Baratz, Joan, e Roger Shy. Teaching Black Children to Read. Washington DC: Center for Applied
Baugh, John. Black Street Speech. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1983.
Brooks, Cleath. The Relation of the Alabama-Georgia Dialect to the Provincial Dialects of Great Britain.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Studies n. 20, 1935.
Canajarajah, Suresh. Translingual Practice. Global Englishes and Cosmopolitan Relations. Londra:
Dandy, Evelyn. Black Communications: Breaking down the Barriers. Chicago: African American Images,
Dillard, Joey Lee. Black English: Its History and Usage in the United States. New York: Random House,
Fasold, Ralph. Tense Marking in Black English. Arlington: Center for Applied Linguistics, 1972.
Harrison, James. “Negro English.” Anglia-Zeitschrift für englische Philologie 7 (1884): 232-79.
Hurston, Zora Neal. “Characteristic of Negro Expression.” 1934. Double-take: A Revisionist Harlem
Renaissance Anthology. A cura di Venetria K. Patton e Maureen Honey. New York e Londra: Rutgers
University Press, 2001. 61-74.
Krapp, George Philip. The English Language in America. Vol. 1. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing,
Labov, William. Language in the Inner city: Studies in the Black English Vernacular. Philadelphia: University
Press of Pennsylvania, 1972.
---. The Social Stratification of English in New York City. Washington DC: Center for Applied Linguistics,
Lusane, Clarence. Race in the Global Era: African Americans at the Millennium. Boston: South End Press,
McDavid, Raven. “American social dialects.” College English 26 (1965): 254-260.
Morgan, Marcyliena. “More Than a Mood or an Attitude: Discourse and Verbal Genres in African-American
Culture.” A cura di Salikoko Mufwene, John Rickford, Guy Bailey, John Baugh. African American
English: Structure, History and Usage. Londra: Routledge, 1998. 251-281.
Pennycook, Alain. “Plurilithic Englishes. Towards a 3D model.” A cura di Kumiko Murata e Jennifer Jenkins.
Global Englishes in Asian Contexts. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. 194-207.
Rickford, John. “The Insights of the Mesolect.” A cura di David DeCamp e Ian Hancock. Pidgins and Creoles:
Current Trends and Prospects. Washington, D. C.: Georgetown University Press, 1974. 92-117.
---. “The Question of prior creolization in Black English.” A cura di Albert Valdman. Pidgins and Creole
Linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1977.
Schneider, Edgar. "On the history of Black English in the USA: some new evidence," English World-Wide 3.1
Smitherman, Geneva. “Black Power is Black Language.” Black Culture. Reading and Writing Black. A cura di
Gloria Simmons e Helene Hutchinson. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1972. 85-91.
Spallino, Chiara. “L’African American English di Zora Neal Hurston.” 2011.
http://www.iperstoria.it/vecchiosito/httpdocs/?p=480. Visitato il 22 settembre 2016.
Stewart, William. “Continuity and change in American Negro dialects”. Florida FL Reporter 6, 1968.
Vuolo, Mike. “Is Black English a Dialect or a Language?”,
ect_or_a_language_.html. Visitato il 28 settembre 2016.
Wolfram, Walt. “On the sociolinguistic significance of dialect structures: The construction in African–
American vernacular English”. American Speech 69 (1994): 339-360.
Karima 2G. 2g. Soupu Music. 2014.
---. Refugess, singolo. 2015, youtu.be/PexxLXtqROE
---. Africa, singolo. 2016, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tv7vVzJd3
LicenseIperstoria is an Open Access journal.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 BY-NC License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of their work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal. We require authors to inform us of any instances of re-publication.